INDOOR AND OUTDOOR EMF / EMR ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS
Electromagnetic Radiation Fields.
Determine if Safe Distances exist between you and powerful electromagnetic fields both from outdoor and indoor sources by our certified and licensed EMF/EMR engineers, analysts and technicians trained to identify, locate hidden and potentially dangerous sources of electromagnetic radioactive fields. Our medically trained RF engineers and scientists are experienced (over 30 years) in this highly specialized field and will provide a detailed report of findings.
High power EMR fileds are known to mutate DNA. See http://www.subclinical.org/emr/epa.html
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Research has repeatedly shown higher incidences of Leukemia Cancers in both children and adults, blood disorders, affecting reproduction and the central nervous system, human cell division and the immune system.
Electric Magnetic Fields In Your Environment
The potential for strong 50-60 Hz exposure in home and near power lines should be investigated especially for those that have unknown, older or foreign implants.
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CONTENTSEMF In Your Environment What Are Electric and Magnetic Fields? The Electromagnetic Spectrum Hertz Electric and Magnetic Fields Other Electromagnetic Frequencies Potential Health Concerns Associated With Electric and Magnetic Fields Magnetic Field Measurements of Everyday Electrical Devices Appliances and Magnetic Field Strength How Magnetic Field Measurements Were Taken Tables How Can I Use This Information Appendix A Technical Notes Data Sources Appendix B Additional Reading and Information Sources
EMF IN YOUR ENVIRONMENT
What are electric and magnetic fields (EMFs)? What common EMF sources do we encounter during a typical day? This publication compares the strength of 60 hertz magnetic fields produced by common electrical items and shows you how their strength diminishes as you move farther away from them.
We still have a great deal to learn about electric and magnetic fields (EMFs). We really don't know if typical, everyday exposures to EMFs affect human health. Some studies indicate that they might -- others suggest otherwise. Most of the recent research on possible biological effects of 60 hertz EMFs suggests that the magnetic, rather than the electric, fields are more likely to produce significant effects. Therefore, this publication focuses on them. The information presented here has to do with the strength of the magnetic field; however, we aren't certain that the strength of the field is the only important consideration. It may turn out that other factors are also important, such as how long the exposure lasts or whether particular characteristics of the field change rapidly. Future research is likely to reveal that the information given in this publication is only part of the story -- that is the chance we take in providing a public information document this early in the study of a complex environmental health issue.
What Are Electric and Magnetic Fields?
Electric charges create electric fields. Electric charges which move (i.e., electric current) create magnetic fields. An appliance that is plugged in, and therefore connected to a source of electricity, has an electric field even when the appliance is turned off. To produce a magnetic field, however, the appliance must be not only plugged in, but also operating, so that the current is flowing.
This illustrates the point that the higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength. The wavelengths are infinitely long at the bottom and infinitesimally short at the top of the spectrum so, obviously, the drawing cannot be done to scale.
The electric current we use in our everyday life produces certain kinds of electric and magnetic fields. There are many other kinds of electric and magnetic fields as well, found throughout nature. The term "electromagnetic" field implies that the electric and magnetic fields are interrelated.
These fields can be characterized by either their wavelength or their frequency, which are related. The amount of energy an electric or magnetic field can carry depends on the frequency and wavelength of the field. The wavelength describes how far it is between one peak on the wave and the next peak. The frequency, measured in hertz, describes how many wave peaks pass by in one second of time.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
If you take all the different kinds of electromagnetic fields we know about and place them on a chart, from the lowest frequency (i.e., lowest energy) to the highest, you have a chart of the electromagnetic spectrum. (See chart on the previous page.) The low end of the spectrum includes electric and magnetic fields produced by everyday electrical appliances. At the top of the spectrum are X-rays and gamma rays.
When you hear about "EMFs" in the news media, the term usually refers to electric and magnetic fields at the extremely low frequency (or ELF) end of the spectrum, such as those associated with our use of electric power. The term "EMF" can be used in a much broader sense as well, encompassing electromagnetic fields across the spectrum. When we use "EMF" in this brochure we mean extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. We should note that in the ELF range, electric and magnetic fields are not coupled or interrelated in the same way that they are at higher frequencies, so it is actually more accurate to refer to them as "electric and magnetic fields" rather than as "electromagnetic fields." In the popular press, however, you will see both terms used, abbreviated as "EMF."
Electric fields from most appliances primarily create charges or current on or near the surface of the body and not in the internal organs. Magnetic fields, however, pass through the body and actually induce electrical currents within the body. We don't know exactly what effect, if any, this has on the different internal organs, but many studies are now underway to find out.
60 Hertz Electric And Magnetic Fields
It is relatively easy to shield people from exposure to electric fields using commonly available materials. Magnetic fields, however, can pass through anything. Even though both are present around appliances and power lines, more recent interest and research have focused on potential health and biological effects of magnetic fields of various strengths.
This publication presents information regarding magnetic fields associated with 60 hertz alternating current (AC) electric power -- that is, the kind of electric power we use in North America which flows back and forth or alternates at a rate of 60 times per second (60 hertz). We will not focus here on equipment that is powered by "direct current" (DC) such as battery-operated appliances. The magnetic fields created by direct current are primarily static; that is, they do not vary with time as do AC fields. Direct current (DC) magnetic fields have not raised as many questions about potential health concerns as have the time-varying fields created by alternating current (AC). We should point out, however, that some DC-powered equipment can produce alternating magnetic fields, but these are usually not 60 hertz fields.
Other Electromagnetic Frequencies
Although the information presented here has to do with the low frequency magnetic fields associated with 60 hertz electrical current, we should note that some appliances, such as microwave ovens, baby monitors, and video display terminals, use 60 hertz electrical energy to create other electromagnetic frequencies.
The measurements we give for microwave ovens, for example, describe the magnetic field that results from the 60 hertz electrical current used to operate the oven. We are not describing the magnetic field associated with the approximately three billion hertz microwaves inside the oven which heat the food and from which people are protected when the door is secured properly.
Oddly enough, we can be easily shielded from the higher frequency microwaves' magnetic fields, but not from the 60 hertz magnetic fields. This is because even though the microwave's frequency is higher, its length is much, much shorter (about 1 cm) than the wavelength of a 60 hertz field (about 5000 kilometers). The shorter wave can be blocked by materials such as thin metal sheets, whereas the much longer wave cannot.
Potential Health Concerns Associated With Electric and Magnetic Fields
Electric and magnetic fields from 60 hertz electric power (as well as microwaves and radio waves) are sometimes called non-ionizing radiation. The term "radiation" simply means energy transmitted by waves. "Ionizing" radiation has enough energy to strip electrons from atoms. (X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation.) Extremely low frequency EMF cannot do this. Higher frequency non-ionizing radiation, such as microwaves, can heat up biological tissue by vibrating molecules. The lower frequency 60 hertz EMFs cannot. Because of their relatively lower energy, 60 hertz EMFs were not, until recently, thought to be connected with any potential health problems.
There are no national standards in the United States for exposure to 60 hertz electromagnetic fields. Several states have formally adopted standards to limit the permissible magnetic strength along rights of way of electric transmission lines. Federal legislation has been enacted to establish and support national EMF research and public information programs, but no exposure standards have been proposed.
Some recent scientific studies have suggested a link -- a statistical association -- between exposure to 60 hertz EMFs and specific types of cancer, primarily leukemia and brain cancer. Other studies have found no such association (see Appendix B). In a sense, this can be compared to circumstantial evidence in a court of law. Laboratory studies have shown electromagnetic fields to affect cells in various ways, but whether these effects are important in terms of human health is still not clear. Almost everyone involved in EMF research agrees that much more needs to be learned before conclusions can be reached about the relative safety or harm of 60 hertz EMF exposure.
Some people doubt that the EMFs generated by 60 hertz electrical appliances and internal household wiring have any significant effect on human health, because they know that the earth's magnetic field, to which we are all constantly exposed, is stronger (sometimes over 100 times stronger) than the magnetic fields produced by many of the appliances listed in this publication. However, the earth's magnetic field is primarily a DC field rather than a time-varying field. Our bodies seem to react differently to these different types of fields so comparing them can be misleading.
At this point, we are not at all sure that exposure to EMFs such as we find in our everyday environment has an adverse effect on our health. However, we cannot say with certainty that such exposure is safe for us, either. More research is needed -- and is underway. Meanwhile, many people have expressed an interest in having information about everyday sources of EMF exposure. This booklet is in response to that interest.
MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF EVERYDAY ELECTRICAL DEVICES
This publication gives information about the strength of the magnetic fields generated by everyday 60 hertz electrically powered equipment. It shows how the magnetic field strength diminishes with increased distance from the object.
Appliances and Magnetic Field Strengths
Magnetic fields from individual appliances can vary considerably, depending on the way they were designed and manufactured. One brand of toaster, for example, may generate a much stronger magnetic field than another. The strength of the magnetic field is measured in units of gauss (G) or milligauss (mG). A milligauss is 1/1000th of a gauss. (The international standard unit is microtesla which is the same as 10 milligauss.)
It is important to keep in mind that a typical American home has a background magnetic field level (away from any appliances) ranging from 0.5 mG to 4 mG. The actual strength of the field at a given place in a room depends upon the number and kinds of sources, how far away they are, and how many are operating at one time. Walls generally do not block magnetic fields. An electrical appliance located near a wall extends its magnetic field into the room on the other side of the wall as well.
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IN SUSSEX COUNTY NEW JERSEY NJ - ANDOVER 07821 AUGUSTA 07822 BRANCHVILLE 0827 BRANCHVILLE 07826 GLASSER O7837 MONTAGUE 07827 GREENDELL 07839 HOPATCONG 07843 07848 LAFAYETTE LAYTON 07851 MIDDLEVILLE 07855 NEWTON 07860 FREDON 07860 SPARTA 07871 STANHOPE 07874 STILLWATER 07875 SWARTSWOOD 07877 TRANQUILITY 07879 WALLPACK CENTER 07881
IN BERGEN COUNTY NEW JERSEY - ALPINE 07620 BERGENFIELD 07621 BOGOTA 07603 CARLSTADT 07072 CLIFFSIDE PARK 07010 CRESSKILL 07626 DEMAREST 07627 DUMONT 07628 - EAST RUTHERFORD 07073 EDGEWATER 07020 ELMWOOD PARK 07407 ENGLEWOOD 07631 ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS 07632 FAIRLAWN 07410 FORT LEE 07024 GARFIELD 07026 GLEN ROCK 07452 HACKENSACK HASBROUCK HEIGHTS 07604 - HAWORTH 07506 LEONIA 07605 LITTLE FERRY 07643 LODI 07644 LYNDHURST 07071 MAYWOOD 07607 - MOONACHIE 07074 NEW MELFORD 07646 NORTH ARLINGTON 07031 ORADELL 07649 PALLISADES PARK 07650 PARAMUS 07652 RIDGEFIELD 07657 - RIDGEFIELD PARK 07660 RIVER EDGE 07661 ROCHELLE PARK 07662 RUTHERFORD 07070 SOUTH HACKENSACK 07606 TEANECK 07666 TENAFLY 07670 TETERBORO 07608 WALLINGTON 07057 WOOD RIDGE 07075 EVERY HOME INSPECTION WILL BE CONDUCTED BY A CERTIFIED NJ HOME MOLD INSPECTOR NEW JERSEY.
ESSEX COUNTY WITH ZIP CODES
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HUDSON COUNTY WITH ZIP CODES
IN - HUDSON COUNTY NEW JERSEY NJ - BAYONNE 07002 GUTTENBERG 07093 HARRISON 07029 HOBOKEN 07030 JERSEY CITY 07308 07306 07310 KEARNY 07032 NORTH BERGEN 07047 SECAUCUS 07094 NEW JERSEY HOME INSPECTOR
HUNTERDON COUNTY WITH ZIP CODES
IN HUNTERDON COUNTY NEW JERSEY NJ ALEXANDRIA 08848 BETHLEHEM 08802 BLOOMSBURY 08804 CALIFON 07830 CLINTON TOWN 08809 CLINTON TWP 08801 FLEMINGTON 08822 FRANKLIN TWP 08868 FRENCHTOWN 08825 GLEN GARDNER 08826 HOME INSPECTOR NEW JERSEY HAMPTON 08827 HIGH BRIDGE 08829 HOLLAND 08848 KINGWOOD 08559 LAMBERTVILLE 08530 LEBANON BORO 08833 LEBANON TWP 08826 MILFORD 08848 RARITAN TWP 08822 READINGTON 08801 08870 08889 STOCKTON 08559 TEWKSBURY 08858 HOME INSPECTOR NJ UNION TWP 08860 WEST AMWELL 08530
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MONMOUTH COUNTY WITH ZIP CODES
IN MONMOUTH COUNTY NEW JERSEY NJ - ABERDEEN 07747 ALLENHURST 07711 ALLENTOWN 08501 ASBURY PARK 07712 ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS 07716 AVON-BY-THE-SEA 07717 BELMAR 07719 BRADLEY BEACH 07720 BRIELLE 08730 COLTS NECK 07720 DEAL 07723 EATONTOWN 07724 HOME INSPECTOR NJ ENGLISHTOWN 07726 FAIR HAVEN 07704 FARMINGDALE 07727 FREEHOLD BORO 07728 FREEHOLD TWP 07728 HIGHLANDS 07748 HOLMDEL 07733 HOWELL 07731 INTERLAKEN 07712 KEANSBURG 07734 KEYPORT 07735 LITTLE SILVER 07739 07701 LOCH ARBOUR VILLAGE 07712 LONG BRANCH 07740 MANASQUAN 08736 MARLBORO 07746 MATAWAN 07747 NEW JERSEY HOME INSPECTOR MIDDLETOWN 07748 MILLSTONE 07726 MONMOUTH BEACH 07750 NEPTUNE CITY 07753 NEPTUNE TWP 07753 OCEAN 07755 OCEANPORT 07757 RED BANK 07701 ROOSEVELT 08555 RUMSON 07760 SEA BRIGHT 07760 SEA GIRT 08750 SHEWSBURY BORO 07702 SHREWSBURY TWP 07702 SOUTH BELMAR 07719 SPRING LAKE 07762 SPRING LAKE HEIGHTS 07762 TINTON FALLS 07724 CERTIFIED HOME INSPECTOR NJ UNION BEACH 07735 UPPER FREEHOLD TWP 08514 WALL TWP 07719 WEST LONG BRANCH 07764
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IN PASSAIC COUNTY NEW JERSEY NJ - BLOOMINGDALE 07403 CLIFTON 07001 HALEDON 07508 HAWTHORNE 07506 LITTLE FALLS 07424 NORTH HALEDON 07508 PASSIAC 07055 PATERSON 07005 ASHI HOME INSPECTOR POMPTON LAKES 07442 PROSPECT PARK 07508 RINGWOOD 07456 TOTOWA 07512 WANAQUE 07465 WAYNE 07470 WEST MILFORD 07480 WEST PATERSON 07424
IN UNION COUNTY NEW JERSEY NJ - BERKELEY HEIGHTS 07922 CLARK 07066 CRANFORD 07016 ELIZABETH 07201 FANWOOD 07023 GARWOOD 07027 HILLSIDE 07205 KENILWORTH 07033 LINDEN 07036 MOUNTAINSIDE 07092 NEW PROVIDENCE 07974 PLAINFIELD 07061 RAHWAY 07065 CERTIFIED HOME INSPECTOR NJ ROS